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http://wiki.imga.org.il/index.php?title=Single_Point_of_Failure&feed=atom&action=history Single Point of Failure - היסטוריית גרסאות 2022-01-25T02:57:05Z היסטוריית הגרסאות של הדף הזה בוויקי MediaWiki 1.30.0 http://wiki.imga.org.il/index.php?title=Single_Point_of_Failure&diff=8652&oldid=prev מיכה יניב ב־13:59, 6 בספטמבר 2009 2009-09-06T13:59:39Z <p></p> <table class="diff diff-contentalign-right" data-mw="interface"> <col class="diff-marker" /> <col class="diff-content" /> <col class="diff-marker" /> <col class="diff-content" /> <tr style="vertical-align: top;" lang="he"> <td colspan="2" style="background-color: white; color:black; text-align: center;">→ הגרסה הקודמת</td> <td colspan="2" style="background-color: white; color:black; text-align: center;">גרסה מ־13:59, 6 בספטמבר 2009</td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="diff-lineno" id="mw-diff-left-l33" >שורה 33:</td> <td colspan="2" class="diff-lineno">שורה 33:</td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>This approach, in general, requires a high level of skill and knowledge, and is more commonly found in personal activity as [[rock climbing]], [[alpinism]], [[caving]] and [[canyoning]]. These activities put a lot of emphasize on being lightweight and avoiding bulky systems. For example, it is not considered necessary to backup a a webbing or a biner that are hanging freely and do not touch rock or ice. The assumption is that the gear will not fail by itself.</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>This approach, in general, requires a high level of skill and knowledge, and is more commonly found in personal activity as [[rock climbing]], [[alpinism]], [[caving]] and [[canyoning]]. These activities put a lot of emphasize on being lightweight and avoiding bulky systems. For example, it is not considered necessary to backup a a webbing or a biner that are hanging freely and do not touch rock or ice. The assumption is that the gear will not fail by itself.</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>===always backup everything!===</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>===always backup everything!===</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>−</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #ffe49c; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>The second approach is to have a <del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">back up </del>for each and every element in your system. This is looked upon as a rule and is done without using any judgement. Backing up everything minimizes the risk and especially the chances of human error. &#160;</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>The second approach is to have a <ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">backup </ins>for each and every element in your system. This is looked upon as a rule and is done without using any judgement. Backing up everything minimizes the risk and especially the chances of human error. &#160;</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>This is an extreme statement, of course, and is ridiculous in a way. Backing up everything cannot be taken seriously because:</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>This is an extreme statement, of course, and is ridiculous in a way. Backing up everything cannot be taken seriously because:</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div># In most cases you simply cannot backup everything, and even if you could, it's not practical. That means you need to decide what does and what does not need backup, which contradicts the basic demand.</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div># In most cases you simply cannot backup everything, and even if you could, it's not practical. That means you need to decide what does and what does not need backup, which contradicts the basic demand.</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>−</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #ffe49c; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div># If you <del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">back up </del>not all, but too many elements</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div># If you <ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">backup </ins>not all, but too many elements</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>* your system becomes bulkier and confusing. This in itself makes you less safe, which again, works against the demand to backup to be safer.</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>* your system becomes bulkier and confusing. This in itself makes you less safe, which again, works against the demand to backup to be safer.</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>* you have too much stuff, which makes you slower on the route (in climbing and canyoning). If the weight is not a good enough argument, you also have to spend more time on setting belays and operating them, which also consumes time. Remember, [[fast]] is safe.</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>* you have too much stuff, which makes you slower on the route (in climbing and canyoning). If the weight is not a good enough argument, you also have to spend more time on setting belays and operating them, which also consumes time. Remember, [[fast]] is safe.</div></td></tr> </table> מיכה יניב http://wiki.imga.org.il/index.php?title=Single_Point_of_Failure&diff=8651&oldid=prev מיכה יניב: /* different approaches to backing up */ 2009-09-06T13:58:47Z <p>‏<span dir="auto"><span class="autocomment">different approaches to backing up</span></span></p> <table class="diff diff-contentalign-right" data-mw="interface"> <col class="diff-marker" /> <col class="diff-content" /> <col class="diff-marker" /> <col class="diff-content" /> <tr style="vertical-align: top;" lang="he"> <td colspan="2" style="background-color: white; color:black; text-align: center;">→ הגרסה הקודמת</td> <td colspan="2" style="background-color: white; color:black; text-align: center;">גרסה מ־13:58, 6 בספטמבר 2009</td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="diff-lineno" id="mw-diff-left-l17" >שורה 17:</td> <td colspan="2" class="diff-lineno">שורה 17:</td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>When the system is build, SPOFs should be analyzed, evaluated and, if needed, eliminated. We know that most failures are due to human errors, either by misjudgment, by wrong application of parts of the system, or by using an altogether unsuitable technique or pieces of gear. A negligible fraction of accidents are due to gear failure.</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>When the system is build, SPOFs should be analyzed, evaluated and, if needed, eliminated. We know that most failures are due to human errors, either by misjudgment, by wrong application of parts of the system, or by using an altogether unsuitable technique or pieces of gear. A negligible fraction of accidents are due to gear failure.</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>==different approaches to backing up==</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>==different approaches to backing up==</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>−</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #ffe49c; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>There are two basic approaches to <del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">back up </del>in a rope system:</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>There are two basic approaches to <ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">backup </ins>in a rope system:</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>===backup only where it's needed===</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>===backup only where it's needed===</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>The first approach is to backing up only where backup is needed. This decision is in the hands of the person who sets up the rig. According to that perception, whether to backup and the mode of backing up are subjective and are highly dependent upon the rigger, his skills and experience, and on the way he sees the dangers.</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>The first approach is to backing up only where backup is needed. This decision is in the hands of the person who sets up the rig. According to that perception, whether to backup and the mode of backing up are subjective and are highly dependent upon the rigger, his skills and experience, and on the way he sees the dangers.</div></td></tr> </table> מיכה יניב http://wiki.imga.org.il/index.php?title=Single_Point_of_Failure&diff=8650&oldid=prev מיכה יניב: /* different approaches to backing up */ 2009-09-06T13:57:58Z <p>‏<span dir="auto"><span class="autocomment">different approaches to backing up</span></span></p> <table class="diff diff-contentalign-right" data-mw="interface"> <col class="diff-marker" /> <col class="diff-content" /> <col class="diff-marker" /> <col class="diff-content" /> <tr style="vertical-align: top;" lang="he"> <td colspan="2" style="background-color: white; color:black; text-align: center;">→ הגרסה הקודמת</td> <td colspan="2" style="background-color: white; color:black; text-align: center;">גרסה מ־13:57, 6 בספטמבר 2009</td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="diff-lineno" id="mw-diff-left-l22" >שורה 22:</td> <td colspan="2" class="diff-lineno">שורה 22:</td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>the points that need backup are of two types:</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>the points that need backup are of two types:</div></td></tr> <tr><td colspan="2">&#160;</td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><ins style="font-weight: bold; text-decoration: none;"></ins></div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>1. Points that have a higher chance for gear failure. For example:</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>1. Points that have a higher chance for gear failure. For example:</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>*A [[Biner]]'s gate that is located on a rock edge is pushed against it and can accidentally open. In this case a second, [[reversed biners|reversed biner]] would be a proper backup.</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>*A [[Biner]]'s gate that is located on a rock edge is pushed against it and can accidentally open. In this case a second, [[reversed biners|reversed biner]] would be a proper backup.</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>*A [[webbing]] or [[rope]] that are loaded and pass over a sharp edge or corner with serious risk of cutting. In that case, a second, unloaded (a little longer) rope or webbing will do the trick.</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>*A [[webbing]] or [[rope]] that are loaded and pass over a sharp edge or corner with serious risk of cutting. In that case, a second, unloaded (a little longer) rope or webbing will do the trick.</div></td></tr> <tr><td colspan="2">&#160;</td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><ins style="font-weight: bold; text-decoration: none;"></ins></div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>2. Points that are prone to failure due to human error. For example:</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>2. Points that are prone to failure due to human error. For example:</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>* A locking biner on the [[harness]], that can get unlocked and potentially open. This is backed up wit another connection to the rope (prussik, for example).</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>* A locking biner on the [[harness]], that can get unlocked and potentially open. This is backed up wit another connection to the rope (prussik, for example).</div></td></tr> </table> מיכה יניב http://wiki.imga.org.il/index.php?title=Single_Point_of_Failure&diff=8649&oldid=prev מיכה יניב ב־13:57, 6 בספטמבר 2009 2009-09-06T13:57:26Z <p></p> <table class="diff diff-contentalign-right" data-mw="interface"> <col class="diff-marker" /> <col class="diff-content" /> <col class="diff-marker" /> <col class="diff-content" /> <tr style="vertical-align: top;" lang="he"> <td colspan="2" style="background-color: white; color:black; text-align: center;">→ הגרסה הקודמת</td> <td colspan="2" style="background-color: white; color:black; text-align: center;">גרסה מ־13:57, 6 בספטמבר 2009</td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="diff-lineno" id="mw-diff-left-l1" >שורה 1:</td> <td colspan="2" class="diff-lineno">שורה 1:</td></tr> <tr><td colspan="2">&#160;</td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><ins style="font-weight: bold; text-decoration: none;">{{LTR}}</ins></div></td></tr> <tr><td colspan="2">&#160;</td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><ins style="font-weight: bold; text-decoration: none;"></ins></div></td></tr> <tr><td colspan="2">&#160;</td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><ins style="font-weight: bold; text-decoration: none;">[[נקודה קריטית]]</ins></div></td></tr> <tr><td colspan="2">&#160;</td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><ins style="font-weight: bold; text-decoration: none;"></ins></div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>A '''Single Point of Failure''' or '''SPOF''' is a point in a system (in our case, a [[ropes|rope]] system), that if it fails, the whole system fails. The idea of Single Points of Failure is the basic concept in understanding the application of backup in rope work.</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>A '''Single Point of Failure''' or '''SPOF''' is a point in a system (in our case, a [[ropes|rope]] system), that if it fails, the whole system fails. The idea of Single Points of Failure is the basic concept in understanding the application of backup in rope work.</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"></td></tr> </table> מיכה יניב http://wiki.imga.org.il/index.php?title=Single_Point_of_Failure&diff=8648&oldid=prev מיכה יניב ב־13:56, 6 בספטמבר 2009 2009-09-06T13:56:43Z <p></p> <table class="diff diff-contentalign-right" data-mw="interface"> <col class="diff-marker" /> <col class="diff-content" /> <col class="diff-marker" /> <col class="diff-content" /> <tr style="vertical-align: top;" lang="he"> <td colspan="2" style="background-color: white; color:black; text-align: center;">→ הגרסה הקודמת</td> <td colspan="2" style="background-color: white; color:black; text-align: center;">גרסה מ־13:56, 6 בספטמבר 2009</td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="diff-lineno" id="mw-diff-left-l1" >שורה 1:</td> <td colspan="2" class="diff-lineno">שורה 1:</td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>−</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #ffe49c; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><del style="font-weight: bold; text-decoration: none;">{{LTR}}</del></div></td><td colspan="2">&#160;</td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>−</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #ffe49c; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><del style="font-weight: bold; text-decoration: none;"></del></div></td><td colspan="2">&#160;</td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>−</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #ffe49c; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><del style="font-weight: bold; text-decoration: none;">[[נקודה קריטית]]</del></div></td><td colspan="2">&#160;</td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>−</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #ffe49c; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><del style="font-weight: bold; text-decoration: none;"></del></div></td><td colspan="2">&#160;</td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>A '''Single Point of Failure''' or '''SPOF''' is a point in a system (in our case, a [[ropes|rope]] system), that if it fails, the whole system fails. The idea of Single Points of Failure is the basic concept in understanding the application of backup in rope work.</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>A '''Single Point of Failure''' or '''SPOF''' is a point in a system (in our case, a [[ropes|rope]] system), that if it fails, the whole system fails. The idea of Single Points of Failure is the basic concept in understanding the application of backup in rope work.</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"></td></tr> <tr><td colspan="2" class="diff-lineno" id="mw-diff-left-l9" >שורה 9:</td> <td colspan="2" class="diff-lineno">שורה 5:</td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>* In many cases, the human is an SPOF. Two obvious examples are the [[belay|belayer]] in [[top rope]] and [[rappelling]] with a [[prussik]].</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>* In many cases, the human is an SPOF. Two obvious examples are the [[belay|belayer]] in [[top rope]] and [[rappelling]] with a [[prussik]].</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>−</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #ffe49c; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>In [[rope rescue]] situations it is recommended not to have any single points of failure. We eliminate SPOFs by doubling the systems, coupling them or simply backing them up. In climbing, rappelling and [[canyoning]] there usually are SPOFs that cannot be <del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">elliminatedfor </del>reasons of practicality and ease of use. Some SPOFs are intentional, like when rapping of a [[trad]] [[route]]<del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">/</del></div></td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>In [[rope rescue]] situations it is recommended not to have any single points of failure. We eliminate SPOFs by doubling the systems, coupling them or simply backing them up. In climbing, rappelling and [[canyoning]] there usually are SPOFs that cannot be <ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">eliminated for </ins>reasons of practicality and ease of use. Some SPOFs are intentional, like when rapping of a [[trad]] [[route]]<ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">.</ins></div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>A useful exercise for understanding SPOFs is:</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>A useful exercise for understanding SPOFs is:</div></td></tr> <tr><td colspan="2" class="diff-lineno" id="mw-diff-left-l15" >שורה 15:</td> <td colspan="2" class="diff-lineno">שורה 11:</td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>List all the SPOFs in a top rope system (solution can be found [[SPOF exercise|here]]).</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>List all the SPOFs in a top rope system (solution can be found [[SPOF exercise|here]]).</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>−</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #ffe49c; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>When the system is build, SPOFs should be analyzed, evaluated and, if needed, eliminated. We know that most failures are due to human errors, either by <del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">misjudgement</del>, by wrong <del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">aplication </del>of parts of the system, or by using an altogether unsuitable technique or pieces of gear. A negligible fraction of accidents are due to gear failure.</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>When the system is build, SPOFs should be analyzed, evaluated and, if needed, eliminated. We know that most failures are due to human errors, either by <ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">misjudgment</ins>, by wrong <ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">application </ins>of parts of the system, or by using an altogether unsuitable technique or pieces of gear. A negligible fraction of accidents are due to gear failure.</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>==different approaches to backing up==</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>==different approaches to backing up==</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>There are two basic approaches to back up in a rope system:</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>There are two basic approaches to back up in a rope system:</div></td></tr> <tr><td colspan="2" class="diff-lineno" id="mw-diff-left-l23" >שורה 23:</td> <td colspan="2" class="diff-lineno">שורה 19:</td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>the points that need backup are of two types:</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>the points that need backup are of two types:</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>1. Points that have a higher chance for gear failure. For example:</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>1. Points that have a higher chance for gear failure. For example:</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>−</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #ffe49c; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>*A [[Biner]]'s gate that is located on a rock edge is pushed against it and can <del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">accidentaly </del>open. In this case a second, [[reversed biners|reversed biner]] would be a proper backup.</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>*A [[Biner]]'s gate that is located on a rock edge is pushed against it and can <ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">accidentally </ins>open. In this case a second, [[reversed biners|reversed biner]] would be a proper backup.</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>−</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #ffe49c; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>*A [[webbing]] or [[rope]] that are loaded and pass over a sharp edge or corner with serious risk of cutting. In that case, a second, <del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">un loaded </del>(a little longer) rope or webbing will do the trick.</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>*A [[webbing]] or [[rope]] that are loaded and pass over a sharp edge or corner with serious risk of cutting. In that case, a second, <ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">unloaded </ins>(a little longer) rope or webbing will do the trick.</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>2. Points that are prone to failure due to human error. For example:</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>2. Points that are prone to failure due to human error. For example:</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>* A locking biner on the [[harness]], that can get unlocked and potentially open. This is backed up wit another connection to the rope (prussik, for example).</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>* A locking biner on the [[harness]], that can get unlocked and potentially open. This is backed up wit another connection to the rope (prussik, for example).</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>* When setting a [[belay]] on a trad route, we use more than one piece of pro.</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>* When setting a [[belay]] on a trad route, we use more than one piece of pro.</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>&#160; &#160;</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>&#160; &#160;</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>−</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #ffe49c; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>This approach, in general, requires a high level of skill and knowledge, and is more commonly found in personal activity as [[rock climbing]], [[<del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">alpinizm</del>]], [[caving]] and canyoning]]. These activities put a lot of emphasize on being lightweight and avoiding bulky systems. For example, it is not considered necessary to backup a <del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">awebbing </del>or a biner that are hanging freely and do not touch rock or ice. The assumption is that the gear will not fail by itself.</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>This approach, in general, requires a high level of skill and knowledge, and is more commonly found in personal activity as [[rock climbing]], [[<ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">alpinism</ins>]], [[caving]] and <ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">[[</ins>canyoning]]. These activities put a lot of emphasize on being lightweight and avoiding bulky systems. For example, it is not considered necessary to backup a <ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">a webbing </ins>or a biner that are hanging freely and do not touch rock or ice. The assumption is that the gear will not fail by itself.</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>===always backup everything!===</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>===always backup everything!===</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>The second approach is to have a back up for each and every element in your system. This is looked upon as a rule and is done without using any judgement. Backing up everything minimizes the risk and especially the chances of human error. &#160;</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>The second approach is to have a back up for each and every element in your system. This is looked upon as a rule and is done without using any judgement. Backing up everything minimizes the risk and especially the chances of human error. &#160;</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>−</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #ffe49c; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>This is an <del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">extrreme </del>statement, of course, and is <del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">ridiculus </del>in a way. Backing up everything cannot be taken seriously because:</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>This is an <ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">extreme </ins>statement, of course, and is <ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">ridiculous </ins>in a way. Backing up everything cannot be taken seriously because:</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>−</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #ffe49c; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div># In most cases you simply cannot backup everything, and even if <del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">oyu </del>could, it's not practical. That means you need to decide what does and what does not need backup, which contradicts the basic demand.</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div># In most cases you simply cannot backup everything, and even if <ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">you </ins>could, it's not practical. That means you need to decide what does and what does not need backup, which contradicts the basic demand.</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div># If you back up not all, but too many elements</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div># If you back up not all, but too many elements</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>* your system becomes bulkier and confusing. This in itself makes you less safe, which again, works against the demand to backup to be safer.</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>* your system becomes bulkier and confusing. This in itself makes you less safe, which again, works against the demand to backup to be safer.</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>* you have too much stuff, which makes you slower on the route (in climbing and canyoning). If the weight is not a good enough argument, you also have to spend more time on setting belays and operating them, which also consumes time. Remember, [[fast]] is safe.</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>* you have too much stuff, which makes you slower on the route (in climbing and canyoning). If the weight is not a good enough argument, you also have to spend more time on setting belays and operating them, which also consumes time. Remember, [[fast]] is safe.</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>−</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #ffe49c; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>So what <del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">od </del>we do? we backup everything that is not <del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">exessively </del>strong. So, all pieces of gear we backup, ropes, biners etc. We would not backup a large tree or a huge building as an anchor even if it is an SPOF.</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>So what <ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">do </ins>we do? we backup everything that is not <ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">excessively </ins>strong. So, all pieces of gear we backup, ropes, biners etc. We would not backup a large tree or a huge building as an anchor even if it is an SPOF.</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>−</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #ffe49c; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>The principle with this approach is <del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">tominimize </del>the effect of the rigger's judgement and so avoid errors. This is common in courses and guided activities, as well as when working with a large number of people: large groups, rescue teams etc.</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>The principle with this approach is <ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">to minimize </ins>the effect of the rigger's judgement and so avoid errors. This is common in courses and guided activities, as well as when working with a large number of people: large groups, rescue teams etc.</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>----</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>----</div></td></tr> </table> מיכה יניב http://wiki.imga.org.il/index.php?title=Single_Point_of_Failure&diff=8647&oldid=prev מיכה יניב ב־13:52, 6 בספטמבר 2009 2009-09-06T13:52:51Z <p></p> <table class="diff diff-contentalign-right" data-mw="interface"> <col class="diff-marker" /> <col class="diff-content" /> <col class="diff-marker" /> <col class="diff-content" /> <tr style="vertical-align: top;" lang="he"> <td colspan="2" style="background-color: white; color:black; text-align: center;">→ הגרסה הקודמת</td> <td colspan="2" style="background-color: white; color:black; text-align: center;">גרסה מ־13:52, 6 בספטמבר 2009</td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="diff-lineno" id="mw-diff-left-l1" >שורה 1:</td> <td colspan="2" class="diff-lineno">שורה 1:</td></tr> <tr><td colspan="2">&#160;</td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><ins style="font-weight: bold; text-decoration: none;">{{LTR}}</ins></div></td></tr> <tr><td colspan="2">&#160;</td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><ins style="font-weight: bold; text-decoration: none;"></ins></div></td></tr> <tr><td colspan="2">&#160;</td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><ins style="font-weight: bold; text-decoration: none;">[[נקודה קריטית]]</ins></div></td></tr> <tr><td colspan="2">&#160;</td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><ins style="font-weight: bold; text-decoration: none;"></ins></div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>A '''Single Point of Failure''' or '''SPOF''' is a point in a system (in our case, a [[ropes|rope]] system), that if it fails, the whole system fails. The idea of Single Points of Failure is the basic concept in understanding the application of backup in rope work.</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>A '''Single Point of Failure''' or '''SPOF''' is a point in a system (in our case, a [[ropes|rope]] system), that if it fails, the whole system fails. The idea of Single Points of Failure is the basic concept in understanding the application of backup in rope work.</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"></td></tr> </table> מיכה יניב http://wiki.imga.org.il/index.php?title=Single_Point_of_Failure&diff=8646&oldid=prev מיכה יניב ב־13:52, 6 בספטמבר 2009 2009-09-06T13:52:02Z <p></p> <table class="diff diff-contentalign-right" data-mw="interface"> <col class="diff-marker" /> <col class="diff-content" /> <col class="diff-marker" /> <col class="diff-content" /> <tr style="vertical-align: top;" lang="he"> <td colspan="2" style="background-color: white; color:black; text-align: center;">→ הגרסה הקודמת</td> <td colspan="2" style="background-color: white; color:black; text-align: center;">גרסה מ־13:52, 6 בספטמבר 2009</td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="diff-lineno" id="mw-diff-left-l1" >שורה 1:</td> <td colspan="2" class="diff-lineno">שורה 1:</td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>−</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #ffe49c; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>&#160;</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>A '''Single Point of Failure''' or '''SPOF''' is a point in a system (in our case, a [[ropes|rope]] system), that if it fails, the whole system fails. The idea of Single Points of Failure is the basic concept in understanding the <ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">application </ins>of backup in rope work.</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>−</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #ffe49c; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>A '''Single Point of Failure''' or '''SPOF''' is a point in a system (in our case, a [[ropes|rope]] system), that if it fails, the whole system fails. The idea of Single Points of Failure</div></td><td colspan="2">&#160;</td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>−</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #ffe49c; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><del class="diffchange diffchange-inline"> </del>is the basic concept in understanding the <del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">applcation </del>of backup in rope work.</div></td><td colspan="2">&#160;</td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>&quot;Even though it contains the word &quot;single&quot;, a system may have multiple SPOPF.</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>&quot;Even though it contains the word &quot;single&quot;, a system may have multiple SPOPF.</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>−</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #ffe49c; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>* In many cases, the human is <del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">a </del>SPOF. Two obvious examples are the [[belay|belayer]] in [[top rope]] and [[rappelling]] with a prussik<del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">.</del></div></td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>* In many cases, the human is <ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">an </ins>SPOF. Two obvious examples are the [[belay|belayer]] in [[top rope]] and [[rappelling]] with a <ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">[[</ins>prussik]].</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>−</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #ffe49c; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>&#160;</div></td><td colspan="2">&#160;</td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>−</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #ffe49c; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">In rescue situations it is recommended not to have any single points of failure. We eliminate SPOFs by doubling the systems, coupling them or simply backing them up. In climbing, rappelling and canyoning there usually are SPOFs that cannot be elliminatedfor reasons of practicality and </del>]]<del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">ease of use</del>. <del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">Some SPOFs are intentional, like when rapping of a [[trad ro</del></div></td><td colspan="2">&#160;</td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"></td></tr> <tr><td colspan="2">&#160;</td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><ins style="font-weight: bold; text-decoration: none;">In [[rope rescue]] situations it is recommended not to have any single points of failure. We eliminate SPOFs by doubling the systems, coupling them or simply backing them up. In climbing, rappelling and [[canyoning]] there usually are SPOFs that cannot be elliminatedfor reasons of practicality and ease of use. Some SPOFs are intentional, like when rapping of a [[trad]] [[route]]/</ins></div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>A useful exercise for understanding SPOFs is:</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>A useful exercise for understanding SPOFs is:</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>−</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #ffe49c; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>List all the SPOFs in a top rope system (solution can be found [[SPOF exercise|here]].</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>List all the SPOFs in a top rope system (solution can be found [[SPOF exercise|here]]<ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">)</ins>.</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>−</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #ffe49c; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>When the system is build, SPOFs should be analyzed, evaluated and, if needed, eliminated. We know that &#160;</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>When the system is build, SPOFs should be analyzed, evaluated and, if needed, eliminated. We know that <ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">most failures are due to human errors, either by misjudgement, by wrong aplication of parts of the system, or by using an altogether unsuitable technique or pieces of gear</ins>. <ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">A negligible fraction of accidents are due to gear failure</ins>.</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>−</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #ffe49c; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">על בונה המערכת לאתר את הנקודות הקריטיות ולבטלן במידת הצורך על ידי גיבוי. הסיבה העיקרית לכשלים היא טעויות אנוש כתוצאה מיישום לא נכון של חלקי המערכת או צורת עבודה לא נכונה או שאינה מתאימה למערכת</del>. <del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">מיעוט קטן ביותר של הכשלים נגרמים עקב כשל טכני של ציוד</del>.</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>==<ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">different approaches to backing up</ins>==</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>−</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #ffe49c; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>==<del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">גישות שונות לגיבוי</del>==</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">There are two basic approaches to back up in a rope system</ins>:</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>−</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #ffe49c; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">קיימות שתי גישות כלליות לגיבויים במערכות חבלים</del>:</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>===<ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">backup only where it's needed</ins>===</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>−</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #ffe49c; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>===<del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">גיבוי נקודתי</del>===</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">The first approach is to backing up only where backup is needed. This decision is in the hands of the person who sets up the rig</ins>. <ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">According to that perception, whether to backup and the mode of backing up are subjective and are highly dependent upon the rigger, his skills and experience</ins>, <ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">and on the way he sees the dangers</ins>.</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>−</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #ffe49c; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">גישה ראשונה היא לגבות רק במקום בו (לדעת בונה המערכת) הגיבוי נחוץ</del>. <del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">על פי שיטה זו יישום הגיבוי הוא סובייקטיבי ותלוי במי שבונה את המערכת</del>, <del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">במידת מיומנותו ובהערכתו את הסיכונים במערכת</del>.</div></td><td colspan="2">&#160;</td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>−</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #ffe49c; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">על פי גישה זו מגבים רק נקודות בעייתיות משני סוגים</del>:</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">the points that need backup are of two types</ins>:</div></td></tr> <tr><td colspan="2">&#160;</td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">1. Points that have a higher chance for gear failure. For example:</ins></div></td></tr> <tr><td colspan="2">&#160;</td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">*A [[Biner]]'s gate that is located on a rock edge is pushed against it and can accidentaly open. In this case a second, [[reversed biners|reversed biner]] would be a proper backup.</ins></div></td></tr> <tr><td colspan="2">&#160;</td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">*A [[webbing]] or [[rope]] that are loaded and pass over a sharp edge or corner with serious risk of cutting. In that case, a second, un loaded (a little longer) rope or webbing will do the trick.</ins></div></td></tr> <tr><td colspan="2">&#160;</td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">2. Points that are prone to failure due to human error. For example:</ins></div></td></tr> <tr><td colspan="2">&#160;</td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">* A locking biner on the [[harness]], that can get unlocked and potentially open. This is backed up wit another connection to the rope (prussik, for example).</ins></div></td></tr> <tr><td colspan="2">&#160;</td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">* When setting a [[belay]] on a trad route, we use more than one piece of pro.</ins></div></td></tr> <tr><td colspan="2">&#160;</td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline"> </ins></div></td></tr> <tr><td colspan="2">&#160;</td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">This approach, in general, requires a high level of skill and knowledge, and is more commonly found in personal activity as [[rock climbing]], [[alpinizm]], [[caving]] and canyoning]]. These activities put a lot of emphasize on being lightweight and avoiding bulky systems. For example, it is not considered necessary to backup a awebbing or a biner that are hanging freely and do not touch rock or ice. The assumption is that the gear will not fail by itself.</ins></div></td></tr> <tr><td colspan="2">&#160;</td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">===always backup everything!===</ins></div></td></tr> <tr><td colspan="2">&#160;</td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">The second approach is to have a back up for each and every element in your system. This is looked upon as a rule and is done without using any judgement. Backing up everything minimizes the risk and especially the chances of human error. </ins></div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>−</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #ffe49c; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">1. מקומות בהם יש סיכון גבוה לכשל של ציוד</del>. <del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">לדוגמה</del>:</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">This is an extrreme statement, of course, and is ridiculus in a way</ins>. <ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">Backing up everything cannot be taken seriously because</ins>:</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>−</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #ffe49c; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">* [[טבעות|טבעת]] הנלחצת על הסלע</del>, <del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">ועלולה להיפתח</del>. <del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">במקרה כזה מגבים על ידי [[טבעות הפוכות]]</del>.</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline"># In most cases you simply cannot backup everything, and even if oyu could</ins>, <ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">it's not practical</ins>. <ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">That means you need to decide what does and what does not need backup, which contradicts the basic demand</ins>.</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>−</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #ffe49c; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">* [[רצועות|רצועה]] או חבל העוברים על פינת סלע במקום בו הסיכון לשחיקה או קריעה הוא ממשי. במקרה כזה מגבים על ידי רצועה או חבל</del>, <del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">רפויים.</del></div></td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline"># If you back up not all</ins>, <ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">but too many elements</ins></div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>−</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #ffe49c; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">2. נקודות אשר יש בהן סיכוי גבוה לכשל עקב טעות אנוש. לדוגמה:</del></div></td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>* <ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">your system becomes bulkier and confusing</ins>. <ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">This in itself makes you less safe, which again, works against the demand to backup to be safer</ins>.</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>−</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #ffe49c; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>* <del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">טבעות המחוברות ל[[רתמות|רתמה]] אשר יש סיכוי לפתיחתן בזמן השימוש</del>. <del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">במקרה כזה מגבים על ידי חיבור נוסף לחבל</del>.</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>* <ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">you have too much stuff, which makes you slower on the route (in climbing and canyoning)</ins>. <ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">If the weight is not a good enough argument</ins>, <ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">you also have to spend more time on setting belays and operating them</ins>, <ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">which also consumes time. Remember</ins>, [[<ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">fast</ins>]] <ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">is safe</ins>.</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>−</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #ffe49c; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>* <del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">[[אבני עיגון]] בתחנה. משתמשים ביותר מאבן עיגון אחת</del>.</div></td><td colspan="2">&#160;</td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>−</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #ffe49c; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">גישה זו דורשת רמת ידע ומיומנות גבוהה ונהוגה יותר בפעילות שטח עצמאית כגון טיפוס מצוקים</del>, <del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">[[טיפוס אלפיני]]</del>, <del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">[[קניונינג]] ו[[מערנות]] (caving)</del>, <del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">כאשר יש חשיבות רבה למשקל הציוד ולפשטות המערכת וכך לדוגמא לא נהוג לגבות [[רצועות|סלינג תפור]] או [[טבעות|טבעת ננעלת]] הנמצאים ב</del>[[<del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">חלוקת משקל</del>]] <del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">בתחנה אשר כולה באוויר ללא מגע עם הסלע</del>.</div></td><td colspan="2">&#160;</td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>−</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #ffe49c; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">===גיבוי בכל מקום===</del></div></td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">So what od we do? we backup everything that is not exessively strong. So</ins>, <ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">all pieces of gear we backup</ins>, <ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">ropes</ins>, <ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">biners etc. We would not backup a large tree or a huge building as an anchor even if it is an SPOF</ins>.</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>−</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #ffe49c; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">הגישה השנייה היא לגבות את כל חלקי המערכת (למעט עיגון כגון [[שימוש בעצים כעיגונים בעבודת חבל|עץ ענק]] וכדו')</del>, <del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">ללא הפעלת שיקול דעת</del>, <del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">על מנת להקטין למינימום את הסיכון</del>, <del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">בעיקר את האפשרות לטעות אנוש</del>.</div></td><td colspan="2">&#160;</td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>−</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #ffe49c; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">יש הטוענים, כי בכל מקרה עדיף לגבות הכל</del>. <del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">טענה זו אינה רצינית</del>, <del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">כי</del>:</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">The principle with this approach is tominimize the effect of the rigger's judgement and so avoid errors</ins>. <ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">This is common in courses and guided activities</ins>, <ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">as well as when working with a large number of people</ins>: <ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">large groups</ins>, <ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">rescue teams etc</ins>.</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>−</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #ffe49c; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><del class="diffchange diffchange-inline"># אי אפשר במרבית המקרים, לגבות הכל, ואם אפשר - זה לא מעשי. זאת אומרת שצריך להחליט מה כן ומה לא לגבות</del>, <del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">וזה עומד בסתירה לטענה המקורית.</del></div></td><td colspan="2">&#160;</td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>−</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #ffe49c; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><del class="diffchange diffchange-inline"># אם מגבים יותר דברים, מקבלים כי:</del></div></td><td colspan="2">&#160;</td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>−</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #ffe49c; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">* משתמשים בהרבה יותר ציוד מכפי שנחוץ, והתוצאה היא בלאגן ועבודה מסורבלת. זה לכשלעצמו לא בטיחותי.</del></div></td><td colspan="2">&#160;</td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>−</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #ffe49c; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">* לוקחים הרבה יותר ציוד, זה מאיט את ההתקדמות על המסלול (גם בקניונינג וגם בטיפוס), ואם זה לא מספיק - מבזבזים הרבה יותר מדי זמן על בניית תחנות ותפעול המערכות. גם ל[[מהירות]] ההתקדמות על המסלול השפעה מכרעת על הבטיחות הכללית</del>.</div></td><td colspan="2">&#160;</td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>−</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #ffe49c; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><del style="font-weight: bold; text-decoration: none;">העיקרון הוא, כפי שנאמר, למזער את השימוש בשיקול הדעת של בונה או מפעיל המערכת וכך למנוע טעויות. שיטה זו נהוגה במערכות המיועדות להדרכת והפעלת חניכים. גישה זו מקובלת גם ב[[יחידות חילוץ|חילוץ]]. גישה זו שולטת בכל הוראות הבטיחות של [[חוזר מנכ&quot;ל]] משרד החינוך. על פי חוזר מנכ&quot;ל, גישה זו מחוייבת בכל פעילויות החבלים לתלמידי בתי ספר, למעט מספר מקרים ספציפיים כגון טיפוס [[טופ-רופ]] בה לא ניתן ליישמה מטעמים מעשיים.</del></div></td><td colspan="2">&#160;</td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>----</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>----</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>−</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #ffe49c; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">תרמו לדף זה: </del>[[<del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">משתמש</del>:<del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">מיכה יניב</del>|<del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">מיכה יניב</del>]] <del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">ואחרים</del>...</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div><ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">Contributions to this page were made by </ins>[[<ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">user</ins>: <ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">Mica Yaniv</ins>|<ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">Mica Yaniv</ins>]] <ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">and others</ins>...</div></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"></td><td class='diff-marker'>&#160;</td><td style="background-color: #f9f9f9; color: #333333; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #e6e6e6; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"></td></tr> <tr><td class='diff-marker'>−</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #ffe49c; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>[[<del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">קטגוריה</del>: <del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">כללי</del>]][[<del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">קטגוריה</del>: <del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">הגדרות</del>]][[<del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">קטגוריה</del>: <del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">טכניקות ומיומנויות</del>]][[<del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">קטגוריה</del>: <del class="diffchange diffchange-inline">טיפוס]][[קטגוריה: בטיחות</del>]]</div></td><td class='diff-marker'>+</td><td style="color:black; font-size: 88%; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px 1px 1px 4px; border-radius: 0.33em; border-color: #a3d3ff; vertical-align: top; white-space: pre-wrap;"><div>[[<ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">category</ins>: <ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">glossary</ins>]][[<ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">category</ins>: <ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">skills and techniques</ins>]][[<ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">category</ins>: <ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">climbing</ins>]][[<ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">category</ins>: <ins class="diffchange diffchange-inline">safety</ins>]]</div></td></tr> </table> מיכה יניב http://wiki.imga.org.il/index.php?title=Single_Point_of_Failure&diff=8104&oldid=prev מיכה יניב: דף חדש: A '''Single Point of Failure''' or '''SPOF''' is a point in a system (in our case, a rope system), that if it fails, the whole system fails. The idea of Single Points of Fail... 2009-06-11T12:15:49Z <p>דף חדש: A &#039;&#039;&#039;Single Point of Failure&#039;&#039;&#039; or &#039;&#039;&#039;SPOF&#039;&#039;&#039; is a point in a system (in our case, a <a href="/index.php?title=Ropes&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Ropes (הדף אינו קיים)">rope</a> system), that if it fails, the whole system fails. The idea of Single Points of Fail...</p> <p><b>דף חדש</b></p><div><br /> A '''Single Point of Failure''' or '''SPOF''' is a point in a system (in our case, a [[ropes|rope]] system), that if it fails, the whole system fails. The idea of Single Points of Failure<br /> is the basic concept in understanding the applcation of backup in rope work.<br /> <br /> &quot;Even though it contains the word &quot;single&quot;, a system may have multiple SPOPF.<br /> <br /> * In many cases, the human is a SPOF. Two obvious examples are the [[belay|belayer]] in [[top rope]] and [[rappelling]] with a prussik.<br /> <br /> In rescue situations it is recommended not to have any single points of failure. We eliminate SPOFs by doubling the systems, coupling them or simply backing them up. In climbing, rappelling and canyoning there usually are SPOFs that cannot be elliminatedfor reasons of practicality and ]]ease of use. Some SPOFs are intentional, like when rapping of a [[trad ro<br /> <br /> <br /> A useful exercise for understanding SPOFs is:<br /> <br /> List all the SPOFs in a top rope system (solution can be found [[SPOF exercise|here]].<br /> <br /> When the system is build, SPOFs should be analyzed, evaluated and, if needed, eliminated. We know that <br /> על בונה המערכת לאתר את הנקודות הקריטיות ולבטלן במידת הצורך על ידי גיבוי. הסיבה העיקרית לכשלים היא טעויות אנוש כתוצאה מיישום לא נכון של חלקי המערכת או צורת עבודה לא נכונה או שאינה מתאימה למערכת. מיעוט קטן ביותר של הכשלים נגרמים עקב כשל טכני של ציוד.<br /> ==גישות שונות לגיבוי==<br /> קיימות שתי גישות כלליות לגיבויים במערכות חבלים:<br /> ===גיבוי נקודתי===<br /> גישה ראשונה היא לגבות רק במקום בו (לדעת בונה המערכת) הגיבוי נחוץ. על פי שיטה זו יישום הגיבוי הוא סובייקטיבי ותלוי במי שבונה את המערכת, במידת מיומנותו ובהערכתו את הסיכונים במערכת.<br /> <br /> על פי גישה זו מגבים רק נקודות בעייתיות משני סוגים:<br /> <br /> 1. מקומות בהם יש סיכון גבוה לכשל של ציוד. לדוגמה:<br /> * [[טבעות|טבעת]] הנלחצת על הסלע, ועלולה להיפתח. במקרה כזה מגבים על ידי [[טבעות הפוכות]].<br /> * [[רצועות|רצועה]] או חבל העוברים על פינת סלע במקום בו הסיכון לשחיקה או קריעה הוא ממשי. במקרה כזה מגבים על ידי רצועה או חבל, רפויים.<br /> 2. נקודות אשר יש בהן סיכוי גבוה לכשל עקב טעות אנוש. לדוגמה:<br /> * טבעות המחוברות ל[[רתמות|רתמה]] אשר יש סיכוי לפתיחתן בזמן השימוש. במקרה כזה מגבים על ידי חיבור נוסף לחבל.<br /> * [[אבני עיגון]] בתחנה. משתמשים ביותר מאבן עיגון אחת.<br /> גישה זו דורשת רמת ידע ומיומנות גבוהה ונהוגה יותר בפעילות שטח עצמאית כגון טיפוס מצוקים, [[טיפוס אלפיני]], [[קניונינג]] ו[[מערנות]] (caving), כאשר יש חשיבות רבה למשקל הציוד ולפשטות המערכת וכך לדוגמא לא נהוג לגבות [[רצועות|סלינג תפור]] או [[טבעות|טבעת ננעלת]] הנמצאים ב[[חלוקת משקל]] בתחנה אשר כולה באוויר ללא מגע עם הסלע.<br /> <br /> ===גיבוי בכל מקום===<br /> הגישה השנייה היא לגבות את כל חלקי המערכת (למעט עיגון כגון [[שימוש בעצים כעיגונים בעבודת חבל|עץ ענק]] וכדו'), ללא הפעלת שיקול דעת, על מנת להקטין למינימום את הסיכון, בעיקר את האפשרות לטעות אנוש.<br /> <br /> יש הטוענים, כי בכל מקרה עדיף לגבות הכל. טענה זו אינה רצינית, כי:<br /> # אי אפשר במרבית המקרים, לגבות הכל, ואם אפשר - זה לא מעשי. זאת אומרת שצריך להחליט מה כן ומה לא לגבות, וזה עומד בסתירה לטענה המקורית.<br /> # אם מגבים יותר דברים, מקבלים כי:<br /> * משתמשים בהרבה יותר ציוד מכפי שנחוץ, והתוצאה היא בלאגן ועבודה מסורבלת. זה לכשלעצמו לא בטיחותי.<br /> * לוקחים הרבה יותר ציוד, זה מאיט את ההתקדמות על המסלול (גם בקניונינג וגם בטיפוס), ואם זה לא מספיק - מבזבזים הרבה יותר מדי זמן על בניית תחנות ותפעול המערכות. גם ל[[מהירות]] ההתקדמות על המסלול השפעה מכרעת על הבטיחות הכללית.<br /> <br /> העיקרון הוא, כפי שנאמר, למזער את השימוש בשיקול הדעת של בונה או מפעיל המערכת וכך למנוע טעויות. שיטה זו נהוגה במערכות המיועדות להדרכת והפעלת חניכים. גישה זו מקובלת גם ב[[יחידות חילוץ|חילוץ]]. גישה זו שולטת בכל הוראות הבטיחות של [[חוזר מנכ&quot;ל]] משרד החינוך. על פי חוזר מנכ&quot;ל, גישה זו מחוייבת בכל פעילויות החבלים לתלמידי בתי ספר, למעט מספר מקרים ספציפיים כגון טיפוס [[טופ-רופ]] בה לא ניתן ליישמה מטעמים מעשיים.<br /> ----<br /> תרמו לדף זה: [[משתמש:מיכה יניב|מיכה יניב]] ואחרים...<br /> <br /> [[קטגוריה: כללי]][[קטגוריה: הגדרות]][[קטגוריה: טכניקות ומיומנויות]][[קטגוריה: טיפוס]][[קטגוריה: בטיחות]]</div> מיכה יניב